Aviation Alphabet...

Stories and general aviation chat

Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Saracenman » Wed Apr 01, 2009 12:01 am

a thread for alphabetised nuggets of aviation stuff :D

no limit on the number of entries for each letter - if it's interesting, POST IT! :D

A

Aileron

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Ailerons are hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The ailerons are used to control the aircraft in roll. The two ailerons are typically interconnected so that one goes down when the other goes up: the downgoing aileron increases the lift on its wing while the upgoing aileron reduces the lift on the other wing, producing a rolling moment about the aircraft's longitudinal axis. The word aileron is French for "little wing."

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An unwanted side-effect of aileron operation is adverse yaw — a yawing moment in the opposite direction to the turn generated by the ailerons. In other words, using the ailerons to roll an aircraft to the right would produce a yawing motion to the left. As the aircraft rolls, adverse yaw is caused primarily by the fore-aft tilting of the lift vectors on the left and right wings. The rising wing has its lift vector tilt back, producing an aft force component. The descending wing has its lift vector to tilt forward, producing a forward force component. The fore/aft forces on the opposite wingtips produce the adverse yaw. There is also often an additional adverse yaw contribution from a profile drag difference between the up-aileron and down-aileron wingtips.

Adverse yaw is effectively compensated by the use of the rudder, which results in a sideforce on the vertical tail which creates an opposing favorable yaw moment. Another method is by differential ailerons, which have been rigged such that the downgoing aileron deflects less than the upward-moving one. In this case the opposing yaw moment is generated by a profile drag imbalance between the left and right wingtips. Frise ailerons accentuate this profile drag imbalance by protruding beneath the wing of an upward-deflected aileron, most often by being hinged slightly behind the leading edge and near the bottom of the surface, with the lower section of the leading edge protruding slightly below the wing's undersurface when the aileron is deflected upwards, substantially increasing profile drag on that side. Ailerons may also use a combination of these methods.

With ailerons in the neutral position the wing on the outside of the turn develops more lift than the opposite wing due to the variation in airspeed across the wing span, and this tends to cause the aircraft to continue to roll. Once the desired angle of bank (degree of rotation on the longitudinal axis) is obtained, the pilot uses opposite aileron to prevent the aircraft from continuing to roll due to this variation in lift across the wing span. This minor opposite use of the control must be maintained throughout the turn. The pilot also uses a slight amount of rudder in the same direction as the turn to counteract adverse yaw and to produce a "coordinated" turn where the fuselage is parallel to the flight path. A simple gauge on the instrument panel called the inclinometer, also known as "the ball", indicates when this coordination is achieved.

History
Since the need for roll control on aircraft was not as obvious as the need for heading and pitch control, the aileron came into widespread use well after the rudder and elevator. The Wright Brothers used wing warping instead of ailerons for roll control, and initially, their aircraft had much better control in the air than aircraft that used movable surfaces; however, as aileron designs were refined, it became clear that they were much more effective and practical for most aircraft.

There are conflicting claims over who first invented the aileron. In 1868, before the advent of powered aircraft, English inventor M.P.W. Bolton patented the first aileron-type device for lateral control. New Zealander Richard Pearse may have made a powered flight in a monoplane that included small ailerons as early as 1902, but his claims are controversial (and sometimes inconsistent), and even by his own reports, his aircraft were not well controlled. The aircraft 14 Bis by Santos Dumont was modified to add ailerons in late 1906, though it was never fully controllable in flight, likely due to its unconventional wing form. Ailerons were also developed independently by the Aerial Experiment Association, headed by Alexander Graham Bell and by Robert Esnault-Pelterie, a French aircraft builder. Henry Farman's ailerons on the Farman III were the first to resemble ailerons on modern aircraft, and have a reasonable claim as the ancestor of the modern aileron. Other claimants include American William Whitney Christmas, who claimed to have invented the aileron in the 1914 patent for what would become the Christmas Bullet (built in 1918), and American Glenn Curtiss, who flew an aileron-controlled aircraft in 1908.

A control surface that combines an aileron and flap is called a flaperon. A single surface on each wing serves both purposes: used as an aileron, the flaperons left and right are actuated differentially; when used as a flap, both flaperons are actuated downwards. When a flaperon is actuated downwards (i.e. used as a flap) there is enough freedom of movement left to be able to still use the aileron function.
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A further form of roll control, common on modern jet transport aircraft, utilises spoilers in conjunction with ailerons. This is called a spoileron.


In a delta-winged aircraft, the ailerons are combined with the elevators to form an elevon.
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Several modern fighter aircraft may have no ailerons on the wings at all, and combine roll control with an all-moving tailplane. This is a taileron or a rolling tail.

:)

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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Xplumberlives » Wed Apr 01, 2009 9:55 am

Shortie

Are you using spell check for your alphabet posts?
"All modern aircraft have 4 dimensions: span, length, height and politics.
TSR-2 simply got the first 3 right. ”
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Wedgy » Wed Apr 01, 2009 10:08 am

Blackburn Buccaneer
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Xplumberlives » Wed Apr 01, 2009 10:20 am

Did I mention that one of my favourite aircraft is the mighty BANANAJET?

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LOVELY JUBBLY
"All modern aircraft have 4 dimensions: span, length, height and politics.
TSR-2 simply got the first 3 right. ”
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Tom.com » Wed Apr 01, 2009 9:16 pm

for you SM ;)

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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Wedgy » Wed Apr 01, 2009 9:43 pm

Duxford Imperial War Museum
http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Tom.com » Wed Apr 01, 2009 9:44 pm

Wedgy wrote:Duxford Imperial War Museum
http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/

I've been there about a million times!
No, I am a fairy
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Saracenman » Wed Apr 01, 2009 9:47 pm

Douglas DC-3

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no blurb required! B-)
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Xplumberlives » Thu Apr 02, 2009 9:04 am

Tom.com wrote:
Wedgy wrote:Duxford Imperial War Museum
http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/

I've been there about a million times!


I've told you a thousand times not to EXAGERATE!
"All modern aircraft have 4 dimensions: span, length, height and politics.
TSR-2 simply got the first 3 right. ”
— Sir Sydney Camm
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Gully » Thu Apr 02, 2009 10:21 am

English Electric

English Electric (EE) was a British industrial manufacturer. Founded in 1918, it initially specialised in industrial electric motors and transformers. Its activities would expand to include railway locomotives and traction equipment, steam turbines, consumer electronics, guided missiles, aircraft and computers.

Although only a handful of aircraft designs were produced under the English Electric name, two would become landmarks in British aeronautical engineering; the Canberra and the Lightning. English Electric Aircraft would become a founding member of the British Aircraft Corporation in 1960 with the other industrial operations acquired by General Electric Company in 1968.

History
In Dick, Kerr & Co., a partnership of Glaswegian merchants W. B. Dick and John Kerr, acquired the United Electric Car Company, a trams manufacturer of Preston, Lancashire. In 1918, The English Electric Company, Limited (EE) was formed. In 1918 and 1919, EE took over Dick, Kerr & Co., Willans & Robinson of Rugby and the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company of Bradford. It also bought the Stafford works of Siemens Bros, Dynamo Works Ltd. In 1930, the manufacture of electrical equipment was moved to Bradford; tram, bus body and rolling stock production staying at Preston. That same year, the man most associated with EE, George Nelson, became managing director.

Railways
During the 1930s, EE supplied equipment for the electrification of the Southern Railway system, reinforcing its position in the traction market. In 1936, production of diesel locomotives commenced in the former tramworks in Preston. EE took over Vulcan Foundry and Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns, both with substantial railway engineering pedigrees, in 1955.

Aviation
Both Dick, Kerr & Co. and the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company built aircraft in the First World War, including flying boats designed by the Seaplane Experimental Station at Felixstowe, 62 Short Type 184 and 6 Short Bombers designed by Short Brothers. Aircraft manufacture under the EE name began in Bradford in 1922 with the English Electric Wren, but lasted only until 1926 after the last English Electric Kingston flying boat was built.

With War in Europe looming, EE was instructed by the Air Ministry to construct a "shadow factory" at Samlesbury Aerodrome in Lancashire to build Handley Page Hampden bombers. Starting with Flight Shed Number 1, the first Hampden built by EE made its maiden flight on 22 February 1940 and by 1942 770 Hampdens had been delivered; more than half of all the Hampdens produced. In 1940 a second factory was built on the site and the runway was extended to allow for construction of the Handley Page Halifax four-engined heavy bomber to begin. By 1945, five main hangars and three runways had been built at the site, which was also home to No. 9 Group RAF. By the end of the war over 2,000 Halifaxes had been built and flown from Samlesbury.

In 1942, EE took over Napier & Son, an aero-engine manufacturer. Along with the shadow factory, this helped to re-establish the company's aeronautical engineering division. Post-war, EE invested heavily in this sector, moving design and experimental facilities to the former RAF Warton near Preston in 1947. This investment lead to major successes with the Lightning and Canberra; the latter serving in a multitude of roles from 1951 until mid-2006 with the Royal Air Force.

At the end of the war EE started production of the second British jet fighter, the de Havilland Vampire, with 1,300 plus built at Samlesbury. Their own design work took off after the Second World War under W. E. W. Petter, formerly of Westland Aircraft. Although EE produced only two aircraft before their activities became part of BAC, the design team put forward suggestions for many Air Ministry projects.

The aircraft division was formed into the subsidiary English Electric Aviation Ltd. in 1958, becoming a founding constituent of the new British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) in 1960; EE having a 40% stake in the latter company. The guided weapons division was added to BAC in 1963.

Mergers and acquisition
In 1946, EE took over the Marconi Company, a foray into the domestic consumer electronic market. EE tried to take over one of the other major British electrical companies, the General Electric Company (GEC), in 1960 and in 1963 EE and J. Lyons and Co. formed a jointly-owned company - English Electric LEO Company - to manufacture the LEO Computer developed by Lyons. EE took over Lyons' half-stake in 1964 and merged it with Marconi's computer interests to form English Electric Leo Marconi (EELM). The latter was merged with Elliott Automation and International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) to form International Computers Limited (ICL) in 1967. In 1968, GEC, recently merged with Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) merged with EE; the former being the dominant parter, the English Electric name was then lost.

Wren
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Canberra
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I can't compete with Andy's Lightning piccies!!

Gully
Last edited by Gully on Fri Apr 03, 2009 10:51 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Hihonyr8811 » Thu Apr 02, 2009 10:35 am

Saracenman wrote:Douglas DC-3

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no blurb required! B-)


:x :x :x
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Tom.com » Thu Apr 02, 2009 9:35 pm

Xplumberlives wrote:
Tom.com wrote:
Wedgy wrote:Duxford Imperial War Museum
http://duxford.iwm.org.uk/

I've been there about a million times!


I've told you a thousand times not to EXAGERATE!


sorry XPL... 999,997 times
No, I am a fairy
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Xplumberlives » Thu Apr 02, 2009 9:41 pm

That's okImage
"All modern aircraft have 4 dimensions: span, length, height and politics.
TSR-2 simply got the first 3 right. ”
— Sir Sydney Camm
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Saracenman » Thu Apr 02, 2009 11:43 pm

still with D

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The Rolls Royce Derwent

The Derwent is a 1940s British centrifugal compressor turbojet engine, the second Rolls-Royce jet engine to enter production. Essentially an improved version of the Rolls-Royce Welland, itself a renamed version of Frank Whittle's Power Jets W.2B, Rolls inherited the design from Rover when they took over their jet engine development in 1943. The performance over the original design was somewhat improved, reliability dramatically, making the Derwent the chosen engine for the Gloster Meteor and many other post-World War II British jet designs.

Rover
When Rover was selected for production of Whittle's designs in 1941 they set up their main jet factory at Barnoldswick, staffed primarily by various Power Jets personnel. Rover felt their own engineers were better at everything, and also set up a parallel effort at Waterloo Mill, Clitheroe. Here Adrian Lombard attempted to develop the W.2 into a production quality design, angering Whittle who was left out of the team.

After a short period Lombard decided to dispense with Whittle's "reverse flow" design, and instead lay out the engine in a "straight-through" flow with the hot gas exiting directly onto the turbine instead of being piped forward as in Whittle's version. He may have been inspired by Frank Halford's layout of the Halford H.1 which was being built at about the same time. This layout made the engine somewhat longer and required a redesign of the nacelles on the Meteor, but also made the gas flow simpler and thereby improved reliability. While work at Barnoldswick continued on what was now known as the W.2B/23, Lombard's new design became the W.2B/26.

Rolls-Royce
By 1941 it was obvious to all that the arrangement was not working; Whittle was constantly frustrated by Rover's inability to deliver production-quality parts for a test engine, and became increasingly vocal about his complaints. Likewise Rover was losing interest in the project after the delays and constant harassment from Power Jets. Earlier, in 1940, Stanley Hooker of Rolls-Royce had met with Whittle, and later introduced him to Rolls' CEO, Ernest Hives. Rolls had a fully developed supercharger division, directed by Hooker, which was naturally suited to jet engine work. Hives agreed to supply key parts to help the project along. Eventually Spencer Wilkes of Rover met with Hives and Hooker, and decided to trade the jet factory at Barnoldswick for Rolls' Meteor tank engine factory in Nottingham. A handshake sealed the deal, turning Rolls-Royce into the powerhouse it remains to this day. Subsequent Rolls-Royce jet engines would be designated in an "RB" series, standing for Rolls Barnoldswick, the /26 Derwent becoming the RB.26.

Problems were soon ironed out, and the original /23 design was ready for flight by late 1943. This gave the team some breathing room, so they redesigned the /26's inlets for increased air flow, and thus thrust. Adding improved fuel and oil systems, the newly-named Derwent Mk.I entered production with 2,000 lbf (8.9 kN) of thrust. Mk.II, III and IV's followed, peaking at 2,400 lbf (10.7 kN) of thrust. The Derwent was the primary engine of all the early Meteors with the exception of the small number of Welland-equipped models which were quickly removed from service. The Mk.II was also modified with an extra turbine stage driving a gearbox and, eventually, a five-bladed propeller, forming the first production turboprop engine, the Trent (RB.50).

Mk.V
The basic Derwent design was also used to produce a larger 5,000 lbf (22.2 kN) thrust engine known as the Rolls-Royce Nene. Development of the Nene continued in a scaled-down version specifically for use on the Meteor, and to avoid the stigma of the earlier design, this was named the Derwent

Mk.V
Several Derwents and Nenes were sold to the Soviet Union by the then Labour government, causing a major political row, as it was the most powerful production-turbojet in the world at the time. The Soviets promptly reverse engineered the Derwent V and produced their own unlicensed version, the Klimov RD-500. The Mk.V was also used on the Canadian Avro Jetliner, but this was never put into production.

On 7 November 1945, a Meteor powered by the Derwent V set a world air speed record of 606 mph (975 km/h) true airspeed






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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Wedgy » Fri Apr 03, 2009 6:02 pm

But 13 hours before your post we moved to E! =))

E-1 Tracer

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The E-1 was designated WF under the old US Navy system; the designation earned it the nickname "Willy Fudd". Since the S-2 Tracker was known as S2F under the old system, that airplane was nicknamed "Stoof"; the WF/E-1 with its distinctive radome gained the nickname "Stoof with a Roof."


Radar
The Tracer was fitted with the Hazeltine AN/APS-82 in its radome. The radar featured an Airborne Moving Target Indicator (AMTI), which analyzes the Doppler shift in reflected radar energy to distinguish a flying aircraft against the clutter produced by wave action at the ocean's surface. Separating a moving object from stationary background is accomplished by suitable hardware.

Crew: 4, two pilots, two RADAR/Intercept Controllers
Length: 42.25 ft (12.9 m)
Wingspan: 69.6 ft (21.2 m)
Height: 16.3 ft (4.9 m)
Wing area: 499 sq ft (46,35 qm)
Empty weight: 18,750 lb (8,504 kg)
Loaded weight: 26,600 lb (12,065 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 29,150 lb (13,222 kg)
Powerplant: 2× Wright R-1820-82WA Cyclone 9-cylinder radial piston engine, 1,525 hp (1,137 kW) each
Maximum speed: 287 mph (462 km/h)
Range: 1,300 miles (2,092 km)
Service ceiling: 15,800 ft (4,800 m)
Rate of climb: 1,120 ft/min (340 m/min)
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Saracenman » Sat Apr 04, 2009 8:15 pm

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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby RLN » Sat Apr 04, 2009 8:26 pm

Fulcrum

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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Wedgy » Sun Apr 05, 2009 12:56 pm

Grumman Goose

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The Grumman Goose was the first in a long history of amphibious aircraft designed in 1937 for a unique role. Built in Bethpage, New York, the Goose was the perfect method of transport for Manhattan millionaires as flying yachts. The Goose was soon to be recognized beyond that of a weekend luxury flyer, and it rapidly it became the plane of choice for several air services.
Civilian models normally carried 2-3 passengers and had a bar and small toilet installed.
Because of its amphibious nature, generous interior space, and rugged construction,
the Goose can go just about anywhere.
The Goose caught on and was used for other duties, such as a Coast Guard rescue plane In 1938, the U.S. military took a good look at the Goose. The Army Air Force Gooses were designated OA-9
(built for the Army) or OA-13A bought from civilian owners, The Navy Gooses were JRF.
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Bovril » Sun Apr 05, 2009 3:28 pm

XM655 - the most powerful vulcan in the world
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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Wedgy » Sat Apr 11, 2009 10:30 am

Hughes H-1 Racer

The H-1 was a racing aircraft built by Hughes Aircraft in 1935. It set a world airspeed record and a transcontinental speed record across the United States. The H-1 Racer was the last aircraft built by a private individual to set the world speed record; every aircraft to hold the honor since was a military design.

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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Mayfly » Sat Apr 11, 2009 11:34 am

Hawker Hunter - a brilliant aircraft from an armourers point of view......

The Hawker Hunter was a UK jet fighter aircraft of the 1950s and 1960s. The Hunter served for many years with the Royal Air Force and was widely exported, serving with 19 air forces. A total of 1,972 Hunters were produced by Hawker Siddeley and under licence.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawker_Hunter


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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Saracenman » Sat Apr 11, 2009 3:14 pm

Hunting Aircraft - formerly a British aircraft manufacturer, primarily producing light training aircraft, including...

Percival Gull IV
Percival Gull VI
Percival Vega Gull
Percival Mew Gull
Percival Q.6
Percival Petrel
Percival P.28 Proctor
Percival P.40 Prentice
Percival P.48 Merganser
Percival P.50 Prince
Percival P.54 Survey Prince
Percival P.56 Provost
Percival P.66 Pembroke
Percival P.66 President
Percival P.74 experimental tip powered helicopter
Hunting H126- an experimental STOL jet aircraft
Hunting Percival P.84 Jet Provost
BAC 1-11 (a project started at Hunting, and completed by the new BAC)

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Re: Aviation Alphabet...

Postby Mackrick » Sun May 03, 2009 7:34 pm

The Ilyushin Il-62 (NATO reporting name Classic) is a Soviet long range jet airliner. Conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin, it first flew in 1963 and entered Aeroflot service in 1967: the inaugural passenger flight was a service from Moscow to Montreal on September 15. The Il-62 was the USSR's first pressurised aeroplane to have a fuselage with a non-circular cross-section (3.8 x 4.1 metres width by height), the first with ergonomically sized passenger doors, the first with six-abreast seating and the first to be designed with international-standard navigational lights.

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